Network Basics: TCP Handshake

Network Basics: TCP Handshake

A three-way handshake is a method used in a TCP/IP network to create a connection between a local host/client and server. It is a three-step method that requires both the client and server to exchange SYN and ACK (acknowledgement) packets before actual data communication begins.

TCP Handshake Diagram

29 basics things IT people want you to know


1. Rebooting really does fix the majority of all IT problems!

Have you tried turning it off and on again? If an application starts acting up, or your computer starts running slowly, there might be a quick fix. By taking a minute of your time to reboot your computer, you can start over fresh. Consider rebooting a second chance for your machine to forget everything that’s troubling it, regroup, and get its act together. What’s more, recent patches or updates might not take effect until you restart your computer — so if your machine recommends a reboot, you should.

Heck, before writing this, I fixed a Wi-Fi issue by rebooting my smartphone. It really works.

2. Logging off and on is different from rebooting.

When you log off of your machine, you’re simply signing out of the system so that someone else can sign in. To get the full benefits of a full restart, you’ll either need to shut down (turn your computer off and on again) or reboot the machine.

3. Turning the monitor off and on isn’t the same as turning the computer off and on.

The power button on a monitor only turns off the screen without restarting the computer. While you’re smart and know this already, some people get confused.

4. The terms “computer” and “CPU” mean different things.

The computer is your entire machine … memory, hard drives, case, and all. However, the central processing unit (CPU) is the main computer chip — usually less than a few inches wide — inside of the computer, most probably made by Intel or AMD.

5. The computer’s desktop is not a good place to save important files. Neither is the recycling bin. 

Where you save your files matters. For example, IT departments might only back up files located in certain folders, such as those on a network drive. And in the case of the recycling bin, occasionally the files there are automatically deleted forever. Besides, files in the desktop folder appear over your background image, making your screen look like a jumbled mess.

6. The “deleted items” section of Outlook is not a good place to file important emails.

Just like the recycling bin, the deleted items folder in outlook gets automatically cleaned out from time to time. But believe it or not, some people like to store their most important emails there! For the task of holding your important communications, you should create special folder instead.

7. Not everything that can be emailed should be emailed.

Because it isn’t the most secure method of communication around, and because of regulatory issues, you shouldn’t include the following in emails: confidential materials; customer information; trade secrets; social security and credit-card numbers (and more!). Also, you shouldn’t email large files because they often won’t go through — and if they do, they put a large burden on your company’s email server. Use a secure file share instead.

8. Don’t “reply all” unless necessary.

Especially on communications sent to large groups of people — for example, the entire company  — don’t feel the need to reply to everyone. This will needlessly generate a lot of extra data that will clog up / slow down the mail server for everyone else. Besides, unless you’re the CEO, it’s unlikely that everyone wants to hear what you have to say.

9. If an email is returned as undeliverable, it likely won’t go through the second, third or tenth time you send it either.

The only thing trying to send an email that many times will do … is frustrate you. Address the underlying issue first (perhaps your computer isn’t connected to the network?) before trying to send again, and again, and again.

10. If a document didn’t print the first time, it won’t print no matter how many times you click on the print button.

Similarly, trying to send a print command 10 times likely won’t do anything good, but it might give you 10 copies of the same thing when the issue is finally resolved.

11. Clicking on a link 50 times won’t make it open any faster, either.

Having a happy finger might unexpectedly cause 50 windows to pop up once your computer decides to start responding again.

12. There’s a difference between the internet, your network connection, the intranet, and a specific website being down.

Losing your connection to the internet and the internet being down are different things. You can be connected to the network in your office without being connected to the internet. So even if you can access shared folders and internal websites, you might not be able to reach external sites like Google. Also, sometimes individual websites experience problems. Just because Amazon is having issues, it doesn’t necessarily mean that Wikipedia is also down.

13. IT does not control cellphone reception, or Wi-Fi outside the office.

If you aren’t on Wi-Fi, your phone company (Verizon, T-Mobile, AT&T, et al.) handles the voice and data networks your cellphone connects to. IT doesn’t have control over that network, so they can’t typically help you if you don’t have signal. And when you’re traveling outside the office, all bets are off because IT doesn’t control Wi-Fi networks at your house, in airports, or in your hotel.

14. If in doubt, read the instructions or Google the answer to a question.

The internet is an amazing resource at your fingertips. If you don’t understand an error message or know how to do something on your computer, there’s a high probability that someone has written about it or even made a step-by-step instructional video about it. Also, manuals and documentation for most products can be found online.

15. Just because you can access a website from your home computer doesn’t mean you need access to it at work.

Computers at work should be treated differently from your home computer. Companies have to worry about hackers, malware, legal issues, and ensuring there’s enough bandwidth for everyone at work. (Your excessive video streaming really slows down the network.) IT sets up firewalls, filtering software, and puts restrictions in place for a reason — to keep everyone safe, keep the company out of trouble, and to ensure that all employees can do their job.

16. If your work computer is locked down in some way, there’s a reason why.

Remember the time Bob downloaded a virus that spread throughout the entire company? How about the time George brought down the email server because he just had to forward the link, “” to everyone in the office?

17. Lock your computer when you walk away.

When you leave your computer behind without locking it, anyone can use it without a password. From there, they might copy (or delete) important files without your permission, install malware, or even send emails pretending to be you. Every time you leave your desk, you should lock your computer (on Windows, press the Window key+L or press Ctrl+Alt+Del and lock).

18. On Windows, Ctrl+Alt+Del gives you other options.

When you press Ctrl+Alt+Del, you can do things such as change your password; run the task manager (which lets you know what’s running on your computer); or log off.

19. Right-click is your friend. So are double-click, and click-drag.

When simply clicking on a button isn’t doing what you want, or presenting you with the right menu, try a different mouse function. If one doesn’t work, try one of the other options for a greater chance at success.

20. Password problems? Check the caps lock and num lock keys.

If your password doesn’t seem to work for some reason, no matter what you do, it might be because you’re entering it in all capital letters, thanks to caps lock. And if you use the numbers in your password, make sure that num lock is on the correct setting.

21. DO NOT write your password down and stick it to the bottom of the keyboard!

Or worse, on your monitor. All someone would have to do to hack your machine is be able to read since you’ve given away the secret. Even if someone is not physically right in front of your computer, they might snap a photo of your exposed passwords.

22. Be careful if you rely on your web browser to remember passwords.

Think about it … if you forget to lock your computer and someone gains access to it, they’ll be able to log into all of your accounts, potentially stealing important data or ordering stuff on the internet using your money.

23. When you tell IT exactly what an error message says, it makes a big difference.

The IT department needs more information than “the system is down.” Tell them exactly what’s wrong and they’ll be able to help you more quickly. However, a vague description of the problem will lead to unnecessary delays.

24. Taking a screenshot can help you show IT exactly what’s going on.

The “print screen” button on the keyboard captures a picture of everything that’s on your screen. You can then paste the image into an email, or to a program like Word or Paint. Alternatively, you can use the “Snipping Tool” to capture a specific part of the screen. On a Mac, Command+Shift+4 does the same thing.

25. If you ask for some IT support, you need to be available so IT can ask you followup questions.

Don’t go running off, if you want your issue resolved quickly. If you’re not there, either in person or on the phone, IT might not be able to fix your issue in a timely manner.

26. Your PC needs to be on for IT to support you remotely.

IT can often use a remote support tool to see what’s on your screen. They can even take control of your computer in order to resolve issues for you. However, this can only happen if the program is running, which means your system has to be powered on.

27. If you don’t have the newest, latest, and greatest tech toys … it’s usually not because IT doesn’t want you to have them.

IT professionals typically love new tech. However, buying new hardware and software can get expensive. If you’re using an ancient PC at work, it’s probably because bosses who control the budget don’t like spending money on newer gear.

28. Be patient, and be nice to IT pros.

Members of the IT department might be working on a dozen other things in addition to your request. And when they’re juggling issues, they need to prioritize emergencies over things can wait a bit. If your question or concern isn’t urgent, don’t expect immediate service.

29. A lack of planning on your part does not constitute an IT emergency.

Within reason, the IT department will do everything it can to help you out. However, don’t expect them to drop everything from their busy schedules just for you. Your definition of an emergency isn’t the same as theirs, especially if yours is a last-minute request.

What did you think of these 29 computer tips IT pros want everyone to know?


Content retrieved from:

MDT – Windowsupdate has ran too many times – MS Printer

ZTIWindowsupdate has run And Failed too Many Times. Microsoft – Printer 6/21/2006 12:00:00 AM 10.0.15063.0

Recently I discovered a really annoyoing issue when:
Deploying with MDT
Both Windows 10 1703 and Windows 10 1709

Here´s the issue, when running the Windows update step in the MDT, it hangs on some Updates
2017-11-06 16_05_17-TEST F12 på PONWEN-LAP01 - Anslutning till virtuell dator.png

2017-11-06 16_11_41-TEST F12 på PONWEN-LAP01 - Anslutning till virtuell dator.png

Biggest question, What it is?
Its two drivers,
Microsoft to PDF
XPS Services

And somehow it causes the Windowsupdate to retry,retry and retry. Its simpely cant succeed. These updates are not in the WSUS just when you going to

My solution is to “Disable” the feature before the updates, and “Enable” them after the updates. Because it bad drivers from Microsoft.

The solution:
1. First, Open the Task Sequence that you are deploying.

2. Add a Step into the task sequence. (Make sure you add it After Windows is Installed, Add it just before Windows update is running.)
AddRolesUninstall Roles and Features
2017-11-06 15_39_59-sql.invidjkp.local - ASG-RemoteDesktop 2017 - invjkp-mdt01.png

3. Check Microsoft Print to PDF
2017-11-06 15_42_39-sql.invidjkp.local - ASG-RemoteDesktop 2017 - invjkp-mdt01.png

4. Check XPS Services
2017-11-06 15_48_20-sql.invidjkp.local - ASG-RemoteDesktop 2017 - invjkp-mdt01.png

5. Then We add a new step in the task sequence. Pretty down in the task sequence. Just before “Apply Local GPO Package”
AddRolesInstall Roles and Features
2017-11-06 15_51_07-sql.invidjkp.local - ASG-RemoteDesktop 2017 - invjkp-mdt01.png

6. Check Microsoft Print to PDF
2017-11-06 16_12_58-sql.invidjkp.local - ASG-RemoteDesktop 2017 - invjkp-mdt01.png

7. Check XPS Services
2017-11-06 16_17_41-sql.invidjkp.local - ASG-RemoteDesktop 2017 - invjkp-mdt01.png

8. Then apply

9. Update your Deploymentshare and try again. On my machine it solved the issue. Good luck!

Content retrieved from:

Removing Windows 10 apps

I came accross this TechNet article how to remove WIN 10 apps.

I found it very useful because of standard apps that where installed and never used.remove win 10 apps


Removing Built-in apps from Windows 10 / Windows 8.1 / Windows 8
PathtoWim – Path to install.wim
select – Enable
.\removeapps.ps1 -pathtowim c:\10\install.wim
.\removeapps.ps1 -pathtowim c:\10\install.wim -selectapps $true
.\removeapps.ps1 -pathtowim c:\10\install.wim -select $true -index 2

I had an issue regarding the DISM version. It was solved with this procedure

I found my issue – the environment PATH for PowerShell was looking at the old DISM toolkit and importing the old modules.

Solution, non-persistent:

At PS admin prompt

PS C:\Windows\system32> $env:path = “C:\Program Files (x86)\Windows Kits\10\Assessment and Deployment Kit\Deployment Tools\amd64\DISM”

PS C:\Windows\system32> import-module “C:\Program Files (x86)\Windows Kits\10\Assessment and Deployment Kit\Deployment Tools\amd64\DISM”

PS C:\Windows\system32> dism /?


Windows 10 Creators update adds button in Internet Explorer to open Microsoft Edge – Here’s how to remove it.

In the new Creators update for Windows 10, the option appears in IE to open Edge.
If you are like me, you do not want this. We still use some legacy apps only working in Internet Explorer.

The easiest way to disable this is with the following procedure :

  • Download the latest ADMX files for WIN 10 Creator update
  • Use GPP to disable the new button
    • User Configuration \ Administrative Templates \ Windows Components \ Internet Explorer \ Internet Settings \ Advanced Settings \ Browsing -> Hide the button (next to the New Tab button) that opens Microsoft Edge
  • Have a coffee !



10 Technologies From Fiction That Are On Their Way

Perhaps the greatest joy of fiction lies in its ability to transport us beyond our mundane world into spectacular new realities where anything is possible. Beyond the pure thrill, the best fiction can embolden us to dream of what may be possible in the future and inspire the brightest among us to achieve the remarkable. It’s not that we hope the aliens really do invade, but we’ve always kind of wanted a real-life laser gun . . . you know, just in case.

Well, after compiling this list, we may have reconsidered. These are wildly far-out technologies we never really expected to see in real life that nevertheless may soon be upon us, whether they are good ideas or not (spoiler: mostly not).



10 Deleting Or Replacing Memories


For some time, neurologists have known that the brain is not the biological hard drive that we may perceive it to be, with our experiences etched indelibly as memories. Rather, memories are not so much created as recreated, over and over, through a process known as memory reconsolidation.

When an event is recalled, it is essentially recalibrated and refiled in the brain, often (if not always) colored by the mood and mindset at the time of recall. This is how memories become unreliable. It is also how traumatic memories become less so over time as the initial emotional reaction to the event (the trauma) is adjusted according to the emotional state at the time of recall. This is, of course, particularly effective in guided therapy.

More recently, a link has been made between a certain protein (known as “PKMzeta”) and the retention of memories. Certain drugs (“PKMzeta inhibitors”) have had success with blocking unwanted traumatic memories in patients by—wait for it—inhibiting PKMzeta production, which has the effect of severely limiting long-term recollection.

Meanwhile, researchers have also discovered how to hack the brain’s reconsolidation process to change the information being processed, essentially using the power of suggestion. One psychologist used this technique to convince subjects they’d committed a fictional crime, which they were later able to provide a detailed description of despite the fact that it never happened.

It has been suggested that a combination of these two techniques—blocking PKMzeta production while forcing recall of a memory, invoking the reconsolidation process—could basically result in that memory being deleted forever.


9 Lightsabers


No, really, and yes, this is only number 9. Scientists “accidentally” created a “photonic molecule“—heretofore thought impossible because photons (particles of light) have no mass. By creating a unique medium in which photons interact strongly with each other (as opposed to passing right through each other, per nature), they were able to get the photons to bond . . . forming an (as yet subatomic) new form of matter made out of light.

Of course, the aforementioned “unique medium” consists of a cloud of metal atoms cooled to just above absolute zero, but the result, according to Harvard University physics professor Mikhail Lukin, is “not an inapt analogy to compare this to lightsabers. When these photons interact with each other, they’re pushing against and deflect each other. The physics of what’s happening in these molecules is similar to what we see in the movies.”

You may have suspected that the lightsaber was not the first practical application to come to mind. This type of matter could be particularly useful in the development of quantum computers. It could also one day be used to make crystals of light as well as the long-awaited holiday gift that is sure to result in a rash of accidental Christmas morning self-dismemberings.



8 Lab-Grown Humans Made With Artificial Sperm And Eggs


For some reason which we cannot fathom (okay, maybe to assist the infertile with conception), scientists have long sought a viable technique for producing artificial human eggs and sperm. In 2014, Cambridge researchers were able to produce early, precursor “germ” cells—which could develop into mature cells—using human stem cells, a process only previously accomplished with rodents. As impressive as this is, Chinese scientists recently took it one large, scary step further.

In June 2016, Nanjing Medical University published its study indicating that a new experiment with rodent stem cells produced sperm that were much further along in the maturation process. These sperm were missing tails and therefore had to be injected into a mouse egg—which became fertilized and developed into healthy embryos, which in turn became healthy, live mice. With no fathers.

Given that developments on the human side of this endeavor seem to lag a year or two behind the rodent side, we can likely expect to see this breakthrough with human sperm in the very near future. Assuming that similar breakthroughs with eggs are not far behind, it could well be within our lifetimes that bioengineered organisms—up to and including human beings—become a reality.

7 Restoring The Dead


In what sounds like the beginning of either one of the greatest breakthroughs in medical history or the most horrifying apocalyptic science fiction ever, University of Arizona researcher Peter Rhee has pioneered a process to revive you “when you are at [10 degrees Celsius (50 °F)] with no brain activity, no heartbeat, no blood [and] everyone would agree that you’re dead.”

In a procedure that likewise has shown remarkable success with animal subjects, the body is induced into a state of “therapeutic hypothermia,” which sounds a little counterintuitive. All the blood in the body is then replaced with saline solution, which sounds even more so. In this state, the metabolism stops, and doctors are able to operate without the threat of oxygen deprivation damaging tissue.

When the blood is replaced and the body warmed back up, according to Dr. Rhee, “It’s quite curious, at [30 degrees Celsius (86 °F)], the heart will beat once, as if out of nowhere, then again—then as it gets even warmer, it picks up all by itself.” Rhee’s partner has stated his intention to begin trying the technique on hopelessly injured gunshot victims.

Meanwhile, a separate process, dubbed “The ReAnima Project” (which even sounds like a movie title), also aims to revive clinically brain-dead patients using a combination of techniques. Namely by injecting protein chains into the spinal cord and stem cells into the brain followed by “transcranial laser therapy” and electrical nerve stimulation.

Biotech company Bioquark has been given approval to go to clinical trials with this, despite it sounding a lot like how Phil Coulson was brought back to life after being killed by Loki. Bioquark CEO Ira Pastor says, “This represents the first trial of its kind and another step toward the eventual reversal of death in our lifetime.”

6 Creating Black Holes


In a recent experiment that will likely secure Stephen Hawking a Nobel prize for predicting it four decades ago, physicist Jeff Steinhauer used sound waves to create a simulated “lab-sized black hole” that could prove much of what has been hypothesized about them. This sound hole was created by supercooling and then rapidly heating helium to create a barrier that should be impenetrable by sound waves. This, however, was not what Steinhauer observed.

Rather, as Hawking’s radiation theory predicted that black holes would generate photons, Steinhauer detected phonons—little bundles of energy that create sound—escaping the event horizon of his artificial black hole. Though the results have yet to be independently verified, the discovery is potentially groundbreaking and Nobel inducing.

Of course, scientists at good ol’ CERN are busy attempting to make real black holes, albeit very tiny ones. According to the relatively new hypothesis of gravity’s rainbow—the idea that gravity affects different wavelengths of matter in the same way that a prism affects light—scientists have calculated the energy levels at which they would expect micro black holes to be detectable. If they are successful, this would—in one fell swoop—not only prove gravity’s rainbow but also the existence of parallel universes.




5 Cloned Dinosaurs


It is now well established that dinosaurs have avian ancestry. The birds and chickens strutting about the Earth are one of the great examples of the evolutionary process over millennia. In a truly bizarre experiment, Yale and Harvard researchers hoping to gain insight into this process have created a chicken embryo with a distinctly dinosaur-like snout and palate—specifically, similar to their smaller, feather-covered dinosaur cousins of eons ago. You know, like velociraptor.

Despite the team insisting that they were not trying to create “dino-chickens” and that their main focus was the evolution of the beak, the fact remains that a successful attempt to essentially reverse evolution in a modern species has been made. Make that two attempts: University of Chile researchers recently managed to duplicate this process in the legs of chickens, engineering embryos with long fibulae that connect to the ankle, unlike modern birds. This was, of course, all in an attempt to understand the evolution of modern birds and not in any way an effort to create dinosaurs from chickens. Right?

Well, it depends on whom you ask. No less than famed paleontologist James Horner—the inspiration for Sam Neill’s character in Jurassic Park—asserts that now that “the proof of concept has been accomplished . . . we can get teeth into a bird and just recently a team from Yale and Harvard have managed to retro-engineer (a bird’s) beak back into a dinosaur-looking mouth. So we basically have the tail to reinstate and to transform the wings back into an arm and hand.”

4 Liquid Armor


Meanwhile, in Poland, researchers at Moratex Institute of Security Technologies seem to have perfected a technology that has been in the works since at least 2010—body armor composed not of the traditional tightly interlocking woven fibers but of a type of “shear-thickening” fluid that seems to defy the laws of physics.

And fittingly, as Isaac Newton was one of the founding fathers of modern physics, this type of fluid is referred to as “non-Newtonian.” Unlike normal fluids, which change chemical structure when subjected to pressure or changes in temperature, non-Newtonian fluids change properties when subjected to stress—like a hard impact—causing this particular fluid to instantaneously harden to the point where it can practically vaporize a bullet.

Further, traditional bulletproof vests (typically made of Kevlar) can and do still allow injury to the user. Kevlar can have a lot of give, warping up to 4 centimeters (2 in) inward, depending on the caliber of the weapon. Moratex Deputy Director Marcin Struszczyk says, “Thanks to the properties of the liquid, thanks to the proper formation of the insert, we eliminate 100 percent of this threat because we have reduced the deflection from [4 centimeters (2 in) to 1 centimeter (0.40 in)].”

3 Personal Hologram Devices


Although the idea of a pocket-sized device that can project holograms might seem very Star Trek-y, several companies have already introduced this concept into existing smartphone technology by using supplemental materials or devices. From pyramid-shaped objects that rest on the screen to film overlays to an actual box that you put your phone into (created by British company Virtual Presence), it’s clear that the mobile industry has an eye toward perfecting this technology—and it looks like researchers at Harvard may have given them something to be plenty excited about.

They’ve created a new type of hologram with the use of polarized light and what they are calling “metasurfaces,” resulting in a far smaller amount of light being lost than in the generation of a typical hologram—which means a much better image. The silicon metasurfaces act as “super pixels” responding to different polarization states of the light used to produce the hologram.

Federico Capasso, coauthor of the paper announcing the find, explains, “Polarization adds another dimension to holograms that can be used to protect against counterfeiting and in applications like displays.” If this seems like something that may be difficult to integrate into mobile devices, well, IBM thinks otherwise. They predict 3-D livestreams of your friends floating in empty space above your phone within five years.

2 Invisibility

Rochester University scientists have famously been working on this one for years, first using a series of lenses to bend light around an object. They recently upgraded to a digital version of the same technique, and they are absolutely able to make pretty much any object vanish—but only as an image, viewed on a display in front of the object. Their technique takes a lot of scanning and preparation, a stationary object, and that darn display, which is admittedly not as cool as an actual invisibility cloak. But consider: What if the cloak was made out of displays?

While flexible, bendable displays have been prototyped by many tech companies, LG appears to be taking the concept absurdly seriously. They recently debuted an 45-centimeter (18 in), superthin display that one could literally roll up and swat a fly with, and it’s not too difficult to imagine even larger, thinner displays—wearable ones even—in the very near future. Paired with the inevitable, undoubtedly more powerful next generation of the Rochester team’s light-bending magic, this makes an actual invisible garment seem like something that we might be able to preorder for the next holiday season.

1 Laser Guns


Finally, if you thought that the US Army wasn’t actively pursuing the creation of actual laser guns, then you just don’t know the US Army. In March 2016, they announced that not only are they very close to an official debut of such a weapon but that they expect technology straight out of Star Wars to be standard issue on the battlefield by 2023.

The announcement of the army’s progress on what they call “offensive and defensive direct-energy weapons,” which is a phrase we are sure we have heard in at least one movie, indicated that these weapons are the hallmark of a “third offset” strategy—which basically means “gigantic game changer.” “Offset” refers to the concept of asymmetrical (lopsided) advantage, with the first and second offsets considered to be nuclear weapons and precision weapons, respectively.

Multiple tech companies, including Lockheed Martin, are assisting in pushing this technology through as well. So perhaps we can take solace in the fact that if the US continues to be mired in expensive wars that most of the public doesn’t want, at least the battles will look a lot cooler. On second thought, maybe we don’t want a real laser gun . . . or, with enough lobbying and fundraising, maybe we can convince them to deploy exclusively laser guns that can only be set to “stun.”

Say What ?

I stumbled upon this very brilljant tool.
I did not tested this out myself but I found this tool a very good idea to develop.

This script listens to meetings I’m supposed to be paying attention to and pings me on hipchat when my name is mentioned.

It sends me a transcript of what was said in the minute before my name was mentioned and some time after.

It also plays an audio file out loud 15 seconds after my name was mentioned which is a recording of me saying, “Sorry, I didn’t realize my mic was on mute there.”

Uses IBM’s Speech to Text Watson API for the audio-to-text.

Currently relies on Splunk as a data store, but can be extended to use an open-source tool instead.

Relies on Uberi’s SpeechRecognition PyAudio and API wrapper: